Non healing granulomas of nose
Lethal midline granuloma
T / NK cell lymphoma
This tumor is responsible for the classical destruction of the midface
Generalized lymphoma involving the Sinonasal tract
Lymphomas of waldayer’s ring extending to the nasopharynx
Peripheral – Sinonasal lymphoma the classic T cell lymphoma
Age / Sex distribution: T/NK cell lymphoma may occur at any age from the 1st – 9th decade. Male preponderance has been documented.
This disorder is associated with aggressive destruction of middle of face. This disease has classically been divided into three stages:
This stage could last for many years with the patient complaining of persistent nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea.
Period of activity:
Areas of necrosis develop on and around the nasal cavity associated with purulent nasal discharge, crusting and tissue loss. There is also progressive destruction of the nasal framework, palate, upper lip extending into the pharynx. Orbit and skull base also could be involved.
This stage is characterized by gross mutilation of the face, exhaustion and eventual death. Systemic metastasis is also seen in this stage
NasalT cell lymphoma presents a diagnostic problem. Atypical cell infiltrates are found dispersed in necrotic areas. Immuno histochemistry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigen should be applied as 80% of peripheral T cell lymphomas show aberrant phenotypes.
Histologically, the infiltrates are polymorphic and atypical cells. These atypical cells are atypical T lymphocytes. Thrombosis and necrosis are common findings. Granulomas and giant cells are not present in this condition.
Thesepatients are initially treated with low dose irradiation. Now a complete course of radical radiotherapy of 55 Gy with wide field coverage including nose, sinuses and palate is administered. Chemotherapy is reserved for high grade tumors.